Caddo (contracted from Kä’dohädä’cho, ‘Caddo proper,’ `real Caddo,’ a leading tribe in the Caddo confederacy, extended by the whites to include the confederacy).
A confederacy of tribes belonging to the southern group of the Caddoan linguistic family. Their own name is Hasínai, our own folk.’ See Kadohadacho. — Caddo Indian History
Caddo Indian Divisions
“On June 25-26, 1835, some 489 Caddo gathered at the Caddo Agency seven or eight miles south of Shreveport on Bayou Pierre and on July 1, 1835, they agreed to sell to the United States approximately one million acres of land in the area above Texarkana, Arkansas, south to De Soto Parish, Louisiana (Swanton 1942). Two chiefs, Tarsher (Wolf) and Tsauninot, were the leaders of the Caddoan groups present at the land cession.
Present also at the land cession was their interpreter, Larkin Edwards, a man they regarded so highly that they reserved him a sizable piece of land (McClure and Howe 1937; Swanton 1942). Further; the treaty reserved a sizable block of land for the mixed Caddo-French Grappe family. Descended from a Kadohadacho woman and a French settler, Francois Grappe had served his people well. His efforts to protect not only the Caddo, but also the Bidai and others in East Texas, from American traders had resulted in his termination as chief interpreter for the American agents. The Caddoan people continued to respect and honor him.
The Caddo were to be paid $80,000, of which $30,000 was in goods delivered at the signing, and the remainder in annual $10,000 installments for another five years. Immediately Tarsher led his people into Texas and settled on the Brazos River; much to the chagrin of Texas authorities (Gullick 1921). Another group, led by Chief Cissany, stayed in Louisiana. They lived near Caddo Station in 1842 (seven years after the land cession). Texicans actually invaded the United States to insist that the Caddos disarm, the rumor in Texas being that the American agent had armed the Caddo and made incendiary remarks regarding the new republic. The Louisiana chiefs offered to go to Nacogdoches as hostages to show their good faith, but the Texicans refused them on the grounds it might mean recognition of Caddoan land rights and polity in Texas (Gullick 1921).
Eventually these Louisiana Caddo left-their credit was cut off by local merchants, their payments ended, and the United States protection was failing-and headed for the Kiamichi River country in Oklahoma. The Caddoan presence in Louisiana, after a millennium, or more, was over.” — The Caddo Indians of Louisiana
“On May 19, 1836, members of the Kiowa, Comanche and Caddo tribes attacked Fort Parker. According to historian John Henry Brown, the attack killed or seriously wounded seven of the residents of the fort, including the Elder John Parker and Silas Parker, the father of Cynthia Ann. Five captives were taken during the attack including Cynthia Ann and her brother John.
History.com explains that kidnapping was not uncommon during attacks in this time period, and also not uncommon was the use of ransom for return. After the Fort Parker kidnappings, most of the captives were eventually returned for ransom, but Cynthia Parker, who was 9 at the time, remained with the Comanche. According to Innerspace, Parker was given to a Tenowish Comanche couple and was raised as a Comanche. ” — On This Day: Cynthia Ann Parker Kidnapped
Please visit Caddo Parish History for more about Caddo Indians.